Mangoes are one of the top fruit crops worldwide in terms of production (more than 55 million tons in 2018), and are grown in over 103 countries across the tropical and subtropical zones. Mango belongs to the family Anacardiaceae. Based on morphological characters there are thought to be from 45 to 69 species within the Mangifera genus originating mainly in tropical Asia, with the area of highest diversity found in western Malesia. The common mango, M. indica, is typically a large, tropical, and evergreen tree with an upright to spreading dense canopy that can reach up to 30 m in some climates if not pruned. It was domesticated at least 4000 years ago, and further developed from an origin in the Assam Valley close to the western border of the Myanmar-Indochinese area in the Quaternary period and spread throughout the Indian subcontinent.